Sunday, December 16, 2012
Leaders in the Bible like Joshua, Moses, Jonah, St. Paul, St. Peter, and other leaders chosen by God have their specific instructions and commandments that is appropriate in their time and place in history. In Adam's time, God commanded Adam not to eat of the fruit of the tree that gives knowledge of what is good and what is bad. During Moses' time, God gave the Ten Commandments. During St. Peter and St. Paul's time, the commandment of Baptism is given (which is not commanded by God to Moses) and other commandments such as "Give according to the decision of your heart".
Gen 2:16 He told him, "You may eat the fruit of any tree in the garden,
Gen 2:17 except the tree that gives knowledge of what is good and what is bad. You must not eat the fruit of that tree; if you do, you will die the same day."
2Co 9:7 Each one must give as he has decided in his heart, not reluctantly or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful giver.
The main point here is that God has specific commands to specific leaders in the Bible. We will focus our study with Joshua as a leader and how he succeeded in his mission.
The promise of GOD to Joshua (the leader of the Israelites who succeeded Moses)
Jos 1:5 Joshua, no one will be able to defeat you as long as you live. I will be with you as I was with Moses. I will always be with you; I will never abandon you.
7 Steps How to be a Successful Leader:
1. Be determined
2. Be confident
Jos 1:6 Be determined and confident, for you will be the leader of these people as they occupy this land which I promised their ancestors.
3. Obey God's commandments
Jos 1:7 Just be determined, be confident; and make sure that you obey the whole Law that my servant Moses gave you. Do not neglect any part of it and you will succeed wherever you go.
4. Read the Bible
5. Study the Bible
Jos 1:8 Be sure that the book of the Law is always read in your worship. Study it day and night, and make sure that you obey everything written in it. Then you will be prosperous and successful.
6. Remember God's commands
7. Don't be afraid or discouraged
Jos 1:9 Remember that I have commanded you to be determined and confident! Do not be afraid or discouraged, for I, the LORD your God, am with you wherever you go."
Saturday, December 15, 2012
People complain when the leaders that they themselves elected lie to them, do corrupt practices, and abuse their power. On the other hand, the other side of the story, people voted for these politicians who were lying to them even during the campaign process. Why do politicians lie? We should ask ourselves, do we reward these politicians for lying to us? Below are some of the reasons why politicians lie to the public:
If a politician tells the truth (e.g. “There will be tax increases” which is not what the public wants to hear), he will lose to a candidate who lies and says “There will be no tax increases” which is exactly what the public wants to hear. The public does not want extra taxes, they don't want additional deductions from their income.
Politicians will lie about things much the same as sales persons who wants to sell products and sweet-talking lovers to please women. They don't want to say anything negative, they wanted their names to be spotless and fragrant.
If a politician tells the truth and says “I smoked pot”, that means he’s a lawbreaker and bad example and will ruin his reputation. Politicians will lie about sexual affairs to preserve their sweet-smelling name. They will lie about involvement in any illegal activities. They will lie about fraudulent practices or scams but they themselves are the mastermind or a member of elite big bosses and big fishes. They want to hide their bad side until of course, proven guilty.
Politicians will lie to make it appear to the public that they are doing a good job. They will try to cover their bad performance by doing some projects that would appeal to the people and gain their approval. They will try to offset the real issues and divert the people's attention. They want to show they are doing something "good" but their overall performance is poor.
5. Broken Promises
If a politician promises to do something about health care (even if he is lying, and have no plans about it), he will win over a candidate who made no mention about health care. They make empty promises to stay above the competition. They want to prove they are better than other candidates or political parties.
6. Public expects more
Politicians who says they can deliver more based on their platforms will win over a candidate who truthfully says he can deliver only this much. The people will not vote for a candidate who says "I can only do this much with this limited budget". They want to vote for a party or a candidate who says "I can deliver more even with less budget".
Are we choosing the Least Evil or the Best Liar?
Among a bunch of lying candidates, voters are left to choose the least evil or the best liar who would provide solutions to the problems of the public. People should consider the above reasons before voting for these politicians. Be careful when electing, they will become our leaders, who would either make us or break us.
Friday, December 14, 2012
The news media, television in particular, affect and influence the political arena in Canada. The media ownership, the few elites and their political connections play a huge role in this topic of influence. The major differences between the French media and English media will be seen. The interpretation done by media and its impacts to the public will be discussed, as well as polling and voting. The aim of this essay is to argue that the news media, television in particular, influence the political arena in Canada. This will be accomplished through the sub-headings and their corresponding paragraphs in the Discussion.
The media and political influences
With the media owned by a few firms, the supposed objectivity and neutrality are being compromised which in turn contribute to the detriment of the public. Most of the people rely on television media for news, information, weather, and so on. With the increase in viewers, the media run the risk of political influences. Politicians establish relationships with the media, so that when the right time comes, politicians can expect a return on elections. An example is when the media indirectly in some way or form cleverly "endorse" the political party to the voting public.
Fraudulent connection between media and politics
In a perfect world, the media ideally should serve and safeguard the public and its interests. To do this, the media should be founded on integrity, objectivity, professionalism, and ethics. They should ensure fairness in reporting and without any trace of bias. But this is not the case in Canada. The media is owned by the wealthy elites which in turn have connections with politicians. They work together to satisfy their greed of profit and much more profit. News and media information are manipulated and carefully structured in such a way to take advantage of the public. Fraud is actively taking place. Through the media, wealthy elite and their political partners gets richer and richer at the expense of the public. It is not a question of "Will this news coverage be helpful to the masses?" but an emphasized question of "Will this news coverage help me to gain profits from the masses?" In most cases, the writing, reporting, and broadcasting of the media are carefully controlled and crafted to serve the interests of the media owners and not the public.
Media interpretation problems
The media, especially with the use of television, can simplify political information that are not easily understood by the average citizen. The media then present these information to the citizens, but, while doing so, they (the media) can see how are the citizens going to be affected by those information from politicians. The problem is, when the media simplifies, it can mislead or confuse the voting public, thus causing him or her to be undecided, voting the wrong candidate, or not participating in elections at all.
They try to generalize content and fail to clarify details crucial to the issue. The media’s inability to interpret the issue to the level of understanding appropriate to the public makes a negative effect to the level of involvement of the public in political issues.
The Francophone and Anglophone media
The French media tend to focus more on what matters to Quebec while the rest of Canada are treated as any other foreign country. If it benefits Quebec, then it is more likely to be given extensive coverage and emphasis. The English media on the other hand, see Quebec as any other province of Canada and give more importance on the issues that affect the English-speaking citizens. When the political parties set out their agenda, both English and French media receive the same messages but when they cover it, they have different emphasis and area of focus. French media puts more coverage on matters concerning language and constitution while the English media covers the economic issues more extensively.
Polling and public feedback
Polling is highly important in political campaigns. Politicians are able to determine the feedback of the public concerning policies. The media play a very significant role because they serve as the bridge between the politicians who make the policies and the public which are affected by these policies. The media can either sponsor or conduct the polls themselves. Through the media, politicians have a way to "test" if their proposed policies are able to make way for their possible victory in elections. Polling would strategically be used by politicians to see which areas would cater or get the attention and approval of the public. Politicians can then use polling as a potentially effective survey tool to customize or tailor platforms (which they might or might not really do) that would let them possibly win. Public opinion surveys made available by the media to the public play an important role in political campaigns. Polling agencies that are commissioned by the media and political parties are taken into big consideration and the results of these polls greatly affect the way policies are made. They are made to appeal to the public.
Influence of newspapers on the voting public
Newspapers, whose political ideologies affect how they interpret and present events, can influence the voting public. Given the same topic or the same event to write about, two newspaper media companies will have different opinions depending on which political party that each one of them is leaning towards. Newspapers that tend to support the Liberal party for example will try to influence the reader to be more in favor of the Liberals. Newspaper media can influence voters by creating bias and employing other means to try to lead them to the side where they wanted them to see the issue.
Throughout the discussion, the news media, television in particular, are proven to influence the political arena in Canada. This could also be true in the USA and most countries (if not all) in the world. The true role of the media is primarily to serve and safeguard the public and its interests through news and information. Unfortunately, however, this role is now being compromised by many factors such as profit, conflict of interests, language, and power.
leaders should know justice
Mic 3:1 Then I said: Listen, you leaders of Jacob, you rulers of the nation of Israel. You should know justice.
Rom 12:8 If it is encouraging others, devote yourself to giving encouragement. If it is sharing, be generous. If it is leadership, lead enthusiastically. If it is helping people in need, help them cheerfully.
1Ch 28:8 Now, leaders, I order you in the sight of Israel (the LORD'S congregation) and as our God listens to dedicate your lives to doing everything the LORD your God has commanded. Then you will be able to possess this good land and leave it as an inheritance to your descendants.
Obey your leaders and follow their orders
Heb 13:17 Obey your leaders and follow their orders. They watch over your souls without resting, since they must give to God an account of their service. If you obey them, they will do their work gladly; if not, they will do it with sadness, and that would be of no help to you.
desire to serve
1Pe 5:2 Be shepherds over the flock God has entrusted to you. Watch over it as God does: Don't do this because you have to, but because you want to. Don't do it out of greed, but out of a desire to serve.
service with humility
1Pe 5:5 Young people, in a similar way, place yourselves under the authority of spiritual leaders. Furthermore, all of you must serve each other with humility, because God opposes the arrogant but favors the humble.
Col 3:23 Whatever you do, do it wholeheartedly as though you were working for your real master and not merely for humans.
Col 3:24 You know that your real master will give you an inheritance as your reward. It is Christ, your real master, whom you are serving.
Eagerness in serving
Eph 6:7 Serve eagerly as if you were serving your heavenly master and not merely serving human masters.
Use your energy to serve the Lord
Rom 12:11 Don't be lazy in showing your devotion. Use your energy to serve the Lord.
Whoever serves must serve with the strength God supplies
1Pe 4:11 Whoever speaks must speak God's words. Whoever serves must serve with the strength God supplies so that in every way God receives glory through Jesus Christ. Glory and power belong to Jesus Christ forever and ever! Amen.
No one can serve two masters
Mat 6:24 "No one can serve two masters. He will hate the first master and love the second, or he will be devoted to the first and despise the second. You cannot serve God and wealth.
Masters, treat your slaves with respect
Eph 6:9 Masters, treat your slaves with respect. Don't threaten a slave. You know that there is one master in heaven who has authority over both of you, and he doesn't play favorites.
Masters, be just and fair to your slaves
Col 4:1 Masters, be just and fair to your slaves because you know that you also have a master in heaven.
Slaves, always obey your earthly masters
Col 3:22 Slaves, always obey your earthly masters. Don't obey them only while you're being watched, as if you merely wanted to please people. Be sincere in your motives out of respect for your real master.
show your appreciation for those leaders who work among you and instruct you
1Th 5:12 Brothers and sisters, we ask you to show your appreciation for those leaders who work among you and instruct you.
Give double honor to spiritual leaders who handle their duties well
1Ti 5:17 Give double honor to spiritual leaders who handle their duties well. This is especially true if they work hard at teaching the word of God.
Remember your leaders who have spoken God's word to you
Heb 13:7 Remember your leaders who have spoken God's word to you. Think about how their lives turned out, and imitate their faith.
serve each other through love
Gal 5:13 You were indeed called to be free, brothers and sisters. Don't turn this freedom into an excuse for your corrupt nature to express itself. Rather, serve each other through love.
use your freedom to serve God
1Pe 2:16 Live as free people, but don't hide behind your freedom when you do evil. Instead, use your freedom to serve God.
1Pe 4:10 Each of you as a good manager must use the gift that God has given you to serve others.
warning against blind leaders
Mat 15:14 Leave them alone! They are blind leaders. When one blind person leads another, both will fall into the same pit."
Mat 24:5 For many will come in my name, saying, 'I am the Christ,' and they will lead many astray.
Mat 24:11 And many false prophets will arise and lead many astray.
Mat 24:24 For false christs and false prophets will arise and perform great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect.
public reprimand of leaders
1Ti 5:20 Reprimand those leaders who sin. Do it in front of everyone so that the other leaders will also be afraid.
freewill in deciding the amount to give
2Co 9:7 Each of you should give whatever you have decided. You shouldn't be sorry that you gave or feel forced to give, since God loves a cheerful giver.
A servant isn't greater than his master
Joh 15:20 Remember what I told you: 'A servant isn't greater than his master.' If they persecuted me, they will also persecute you. If they did what I said, they will also do what you say.
Those who serve me must follow me
Joh 12:26 Those who serve me must follow me. My servants will be with me wherever I will be. If people serve me, the Father will honor them.
CHURCH LEADER's qualifications
1Ti 3:1 This is a true saying: If a man is eager to be a church leader, he desires an excellent work.
1Ti 3:2 A church leader must be without fault; he must have only one wife, be sober, self-controlled, and orderly; he must welcome strangers in his home; he must be able to teach;
1Ti 3:3 he must not be a drunkard or a violent man, but gentle and peaceful; he must not love money;
1Ti 3:4 he must be able to manage his own family well and make his children obey him with all respect.
1Ti 3:5 For if a man does not know how to manage his own family, how can he take care of the church of God?
1Ti 3:6 He must be mature in the faith, so that he will not swell up with pride and be condemned, as the Devil was.
1Ti 3:7 He should be a man who is respected by the people outside the church, so that he will not be disgraced and fall into the Devil's trap.
Church helpers' qualifications
1Ti 3:8 Church helpers must also have a good character and be sincere; they must not drink too much wine or be greedy for money;
1Ti 3:9 they should hold to the revealed truth of the faith with a clear conscience.
1Ti 3:10 They should be tested first, and then, if they pass the test, they are to serve.
1Ti 3:11 Their wives also must be of good character and must not gossip; they must be sober and honest in everything.
1Ti 3:12 A church helper must have only one wife, and be able to manage his children and family well.
1Ti 3:13 Those helpers who do their work well win for themselves a good standing and are able to speak boldly about their faith in Christ Jesus.
careful assessment, planning, design and consideration
Luk 14:28 "Suppose you want to build a tower. You would first sit down and figure out what it costs. Then you would see if you have enough money to finish it.
Luk 14:29 Otherwise, if you lay a foundation and can't finish the building, everyone who watches will make fun of you.
Luk 14:30 They'll say, 'This person started to build but couldn't finish the job.'
Luk 14:31 "Or suppose a king is going to war against another king. He would first sit down and think things through. Can he and his 10,000 soldiers fight against a king with 20,000 soldiers?
Luk 14:32 If he can't, he'll send ambassadors to ask for terms of peace while the other king is still far away.
Luk 14:33 In the same way, none of you can be my disciples unless you give up everything.
Whoever wants to be most important among you will be your slave
Mat 20:25 Jesus called the apostles and said, "You know that the rulers of nations have absolute power over people and their officials have absolute authority over people.
Mat 20:26 But that's not the way it's going to be among you. Whoever wants to become great among you will be your servant.
Mat 20:27 Whoever wants to be most important among you will be your slave.
Mat 20:28 It's the same way with the Son of Man. He didn't come so that others could serve him. He came to serve and to give his life as a ransom for many people."
faithful and wise servant
Mat 24:45 "Who, then, is the faithful and wise servant? The master will put that person in charge of giving the other servants their food at the right time.
Mat 24:46 That servant will be blessed if his master finds him doing this job when he comes.
Mat 24:47 I can guarantee this truth: He will put that servant in charge of all his property.
fair decisions & justice to the poor
Isa 11:2 The Spirit of the LORD will rest on him- the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of advice and power, the Spirit of knowledge and fear of the LORD.
Isa 11:3 He will gladly bear the fear of the LORD. He will not judge by what his eyes see or decide by what his ears hear.
Isa 11:4 He will judge the poor justly. He will make fair decisions for the humble people on earth. He will strike the earth with a rod from his mouth. He will kill the wicked with the breath from his lips.
Isa 11:5 Justice will be the belt around his waist. Faithfulness will be the belt around his hips.
Gaining respect through wise & rightful decisions
1Ki 3:23 The king said, "This one keeps saying, 'My son is alive-your son is dead,' and that one keeps saying, 'No! Your son is dead-my son is alive.'"
1Ki 3:24 So the king told his servants to bring him a sword. When they brought it,
1Ki 3:25 he said, "Cut the living child in two. Give half to the one and half to the other."
1Ki 3:26 Then the woman whose son was still alive was deeply moved by her love for the child. She said to the king, "Please, sir, give her the living child. Please don't kill him!" But the other woman said, "He won't be mine or yours. Cut him in two."
1Ki 3:27 The king replied, "Give the living child to the first woman. Don't kill him. She is his mother."
1Ki 3:28 All Israel heard about the decision the king made. They respected the king very highly, because they saw he possessed wisdom from God to do what was right.
the power of unanimous decision
Act 15:23 They wrote this letter for them to deliver: From the apostles and the spiritual leaders, your brothers. To their non-Jewish brothers and sisters in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia. Dear brothers and sisters,
Act 15:24 We have heard that some individuals who came from us have confused you with statements that disturb you. We did not authorize these men to speak.
Act 15:25 So we have come to a unanimous decision that we should choose men and send them to you with our dear Barnabas and Paul.
Act 15:26 Barnabas and Paul have dedicated their lives to our Lord, the one named Jesus Christ.
Act 15:27 We have sent Judas and Silas to report to you on our decision.
If you are sick, call for the church leaders
Jas 5:14 If you are sick, call for the church leaders. Have them pray for you and anoint you with olive oil in the name of the Lord.
decision from the spiritual leaders
Act 15:22 Then the apostles, the spiritual leaders, and the whole church decided to choose some of their men to send with Paul and Barnabas to the city of Antioch. They chose Judas (called Barsabbas) and Silas, who were leaders among the believers.
Act 21:18 The next day Paul went with us to visit James. All the spiritual leaders were present.
Act 21:19 After greeting them, Paul related everything God had done through his work with non-Jewish people.
Act 21:20 When the spiritual leaders heard about everything, they praised God. They said to Paul, "You see, brother, how many thousands of Jews are now believers, and all of them are deeply committed to Moses' Teachings.
Act 21:21 But they have been told that you teach all the Jews living among non-Jewish people to abandon Moses. They claim that you tell them not to circumcise their children or follow Jewish customs.
Act 21:22 What should we do about this? They will certainly hear that you're in town.
Act 21:23 So follow our advice. We have four men who have made a vow to God.
Act 21:24 Take these men, go through the purification ceremony with them, and pay the expenses to shave their heads. Then everyone will know that what they've been told about you isn't true. Instead, they'll see that you carefully follow Moses' Teachings.
Act 21:25 "To clarify this matter, we have written non-Jewish believers a letter with our decision. We told them that they should not eat food sacrificed to false gods, bloody meat, or the meat of strangled animals. They also should not commit sexual sins."
Everyone else should decide whether what each person said is right or wrong
1Co 14:29 Two or three people should speak what God has revealed. Everyone else should decide whether what each person said is right or wrong.
1Co 14:30 If God reveals something to another person who is seated, the first speaker should be silent.
1Co 14:31 All of you can take your turns speaking what God has revealed. In that way, everyone will learn and be encouraged.
1Co 14:32 People who speak what God has revealed must control themselves.
1Co 14:33 God is not a God of disorder but a God of peace. As in all the churches of God's holy people,
the place of honor
Luk 14:7 Then Jesus noticed how the guests always chose the places of honor. So he used this illustration when he spoke to them:
Luk 14:8 "When someone invites you to a wedding, don't take the place of honor. Maybe someone more important than you was invited.
Luk 14:9 Then your host would say to you, 'Give this person your place.' Embarrassed, you would have to take the place of least honor.
Luk 14:10 So when you're invited, take the place of least honor. Then, when your host comes, he will tell you, 'Friend, move to a more honorable place.' Then all the other guests will see how you are honored.
Luk 14:11 Those who honor themselves will be humbled, but people who humble themselves will be honored."
Honor and decision
Rom 14:1 Welcome people who are weak in faith, but don't get into an argument over differences of opinion.
Rom 14:2 Some people believe that they can eat all kinds of food. Other people with weak faith believe that they can eat only vegetables.
Rom 14:3 People who eat all foods should not despise people who eat only vegetables. In the same way, the vegetarians should not criticize people who eat all foods, because God has accepted those people.
Rom 14:4 Who are you to criticize someone else's servant? The Lord will determine whether his servant has been successful. The servant will be successful because the Lord makes him successful.
Rom 14:5 One person decides that one day is holier than another. Another person decides that all days are the same. Every person must make his own decision.
Rom 14:6 When people observe a special day, they observe it to honor the Lord. When people eat all kinds of foods, they honor the Lord as they eat, since they give thanks to God. Vegetarians also honor the Lord when they eat, and they, too, give thanks to God.
Rom 14:7 It's clear that we don't live to honor ourselves, and we don't die to honor ourselves.
Rom 14:8 If we live, we honor the Lord, and if we die, we honor the Lord. So whether we live or die, we belong to the Lord.
Rom 14:9 For this reason Christ died and came back to life so that he would be the Lord of both the living and the dead.
you should decide never to do anything that would make other Christians have doubts or lose their faith
Rom 14:12 All of us will have to give an account of ourselves to God.
Rom 14:13 So let's stop criticizing each other. Instead, you should decide never to do anything that would make other Christians have doubts or lose their faith.
Rom 14:14 The Lord Jesus has given me the knowledge and conviction that no food is unacceptable in and of itself. But it is unacceptable to a person who thinks it is.
Rom 14:15 So if what you eat hurts another Christian, you are no longer living by love. Don't destroy anyone by what you eat. Christ died for that person.
Rom 14:16 Don't allow anyone to say that what you consider good is evil.
Rom 14:17 God's kingdom does not consist of what a person eats or drinks. Rather, God's kingdom consists of God's approval and peace, as well as the joy that the Holy Spirit gives.
Rom 14:18 The person who serves Christ with this in mind is pleasing to God and respected by people.
Rom 14:19 So let's pursue those things which bring peace and which are good for each other.
Rom 14:20 Don't ruin God's work because of what you eat. All food is acceptable, but it's wrong for a person to eat something if it causes someone else to have doubts.
Rom 14:21 The right thing to do is to avoid eating meat, drinking wine, or doing anything else that causes another Christian to have doubts.
Rom 14:22 So whatever you believe about these things, keep it between yourself and God. The person who does what he knows is right shouldn't feel guilty. He is blessed.
Rom 14:23 But if a person has doubts and still eats, he is condemned because he didn't act in faith. Anything that is not done in faith is sin.
decision of parents to give their daughter in marriage
1Co 7:35 I'm saying this for your benefit, not to restrict you. I'm showing you how to live a noble life of devotion to the Lord without being distracted by other things.
1Co 7:36 No father would want to do the wrong thing when his virgin daughter is old enough to get married. If she wants to get married, he isn't sinning by letting her get married.
1Co 7:37 However, a father may have come to a decision about his daughter. If his decision is to keep her at home because she doesn't want to get married, that's fine.
1Co 7:38 So it's fine for a father to give his daughter in marriage, but the father who doesn't give his daughter in marriage does even better.
jugdments and decisions about a girl's virginity
Deu 22:13 A man might marry a woman, sleep with her, and decide he doesn't like her.
Deu 22:14 Then he might make up charges against her and ruin her reputation by saying, "I married this woman. But when I slept with her, I found out she wasn't a virgin."
Deu 22:15 The girl's father and mother must go to the city gate where the leaders of the city are and submit the evidence that their daughter was a virgin.
Deu 22:16 The girl's father will tell the leaders, "I gave my daughter in marriage to this man, but he doesn't like her.
Deu 22:17 Now he has made up charges against her. He says he found out that my daughter wasn't a virgin. But here's the evidence!" Then the girl's parents must spread out the cloth in front of the leaders of the city.
Deu 22:18 The leaders of that city must take the man and punish him.
Deu 22:19 They will fine him 2 1/2 pounds of silver and give it to the girl's father. The husband ruined the reputation of an Israelite virgin. She will continue to be his wife, and he can never divorce her as long as he lives.
Deu 22:20 But if the charge is true, and no evidence that the girl was a virgin can be found,
Deu 22:21 they must take the girl to the entrance of her father's house. The men of her city must stone her to death because she has committed such a godless act in Israel: She had sex before marriage, while she was still living in her father's house. You must get rid of this evil.
beautiful woman as captive or prisoner of war
Deu 21:10 When you go to war with your enemies and the LORD your God hands them over to you, you may take them captive.
Deu 21:11 If you see a beautiful woman among the captives and have your heart set on her, you may marry her.
Deu 21:12 Bring her into your home. She must shave her head, cut her nails,
Deu 21:13 and no longer wear the clothes she was wearing when you captured her. Then she may live in your house and mourn the loss of her father and mother for one month. After that, you may sleep with her. Then you will become husband and wife.
Deu 21:14 But if it happens that you are no longer pleased with her, let her go wherever she wants. You must never sell her or mistreat her as if she were a slave, since you've already had sex with her.
community decisions for unintentional murders
Num 35:22 "But suppose you accidentally kill someone who wasn't your enemy. Maybe you shoved him or threw something at him but didn't mean to kill him.
Num 35:23 Or suppose you drop a big stone, and someone is killed. However, you didn't know the person was there, he wasn't your enemy, and you weren't trying to harm him.
Num 35:24 Then the community must use these rules in order to decide if you are innocent or if the dead person's relative can avenge the death.
Num 35:25 If you are innocent, the community must protect you from that relative. They must take you back to the city of refuge you fled to. You must live there until the death of the chief priest who was anointed with the holy oil.
Num 35:26 "But don't go outside the city of refuge you fled to.
Num 35:27 If the relative who can avenge the death finds you outside the city of refuge and kills you, the relative is not guilty of murder.
Num 35:28 Accused murderers must stay in their city of refuge until the death of the chief priest. They may go back to their own property only after his death.
place of refuge for unintentional murders
Jos 20:1 The LORD said to Joshua,
Jos 20:2 "Tell the people of Israel, 'Now choose for yourselves the cities of refuge about which I spoke to you through Moses.
Jos 20:3 Choose them so that anyone who unintentionally kills someone may run to them. They will be a place of refuge from any relative who can avenge the death.
Jos 20:4 "'A person who kills someone accidentally can run to one of these cities. There he will stand at the entrance to the city, where court is held, and present his case to the leaders of that city. Then they will take him into their city and give him a place to live with them.
Jos 20:5 "'If the relative who can avenge the death pursues him, the leaders must not hand him over to the relative because he didn't intend to kill the other person. He didn't even hate the person he killed.
Jos 20:6 The accused person may remain in that city until he can stand trial in front of the congregation or until whoever is chief priest at that time dies. Then he may go back to his home in the city from which he ran away.'"
Deu 21:1 This is what you must do if you find a murder victim lying in a field in the land that the LORD your God is giving you. If no one knows who committed the murder,
Deu 21:2 your leaders and judges must go and measure the distance from the body to each of the neighboring cities.
Deu 21:3 When it has been determined which city is nearest the body, the leaders from that city must choose a heifer that has never been put to work and never worn a yoke.
Deu 21:4 The leaders of that city will bring the heifer down to a river, to a location where the land hasn't been plowed or planted. At the river they must break the heifer's neck.
Deu 21:5 The priests, the descendants of Levi, must come forward. The LORD your God has chosen them to serve him as priests and to bless people in the LORD'S name. Their decision is final in all cases involving a disagreement or an assault.
Deu 21:6 All the leaders from the city which was nearest the murder victim must wash their hands over the dead heifer.
Deu 21:7 Then they must make this formal statement: "We didn't commit this murder, and we didn't witness it.
Deu 21:8 LORD, make peace with your people Israel, whom you freed. Don't let the guilt of this unsolved murder remain among your people Israel." Then there will be peace with the LORD despite the murder.
Deu 21:9 This is how you will get rid of the guilt of an unsolved murder by doing what the LORD considers right.
decision and verdict of the priests and judge - hard cases
Deu 17:8 There may be a case that is too hard for you to decide. It may involve murder, assault, or a dispute-any case which may be brought to court in your cities. Take this case to the place that the LORD your God will choose.
Deu 17:9 Go to the Levitical priests and the judge who is serving at that time. Ask for their opinion, and they will give you their verdict
Deu 17:10 at the place that the LORD will choose. Do what they tell you. Follow all their instructions carefully,
Deu 17:11 and do what they tell you to do in their verdict. Do exactly what they tell you to do in their decision.
Deu 17:12 If anyone deliberately disobeys the priest (who serves the LORD your God) or the judge, that person must die. You must get rid of this evil in Israel.
Deu 17:13 When all the people hear about it, they will be afraid and will never defy God's law again.
disagreements brought into court should be settled and decided by judges
Deu 25:1 This is what you must do whenever two people have a disagreement that is brought into court. The judges will hear the case and decide who's right and who's wrong.
Deu 25:2 If the person who's in the wrong deserves to be beaten, the judge will order him to lie down. Then the judge will have him beaten with as many lashes as the crime deserves.
Deu 25:3 Forty lashes may be given, but no more. If an Israelite were given more than that, he would be publicly humiliated.
fleeing in battle as a decoy strategy to give way for the ambush
Jdg 20:32 The men of Benjamin shouted, "They're defeated as before!" But the men of Israel had said, "Let's flee in order to lead them from the city to the roads."
Jdg 20:33 So the men of Israel left their positions. They formed their battle line at Baal Tamar. Meanwhile, those waiting in ambush rushed from their position to the west of Gibeah.
Jdg 20:34 Then 10,000 of Israel's best men attacked Gibeah. The battle was fierce. But Benjamin's men didn't realize their own evil was about to overtake them.
Jdg 20:35 So the LORD defeated them in front of Israel. On that day the Israelites slaughtered 25,100 men from Benjamin who were armed with swords.
Jdg 20:36 Then the men of Benjamin realized they were defeated. The Israelites had allowed the men of Benjamin to take back some ground. The Israelites relied on those waiting in ambush near Gibeah.
Jdg 20:37 The men in ambush quickly charged toward Gibeah. They spread out in the city and killed everyone.
Jdg 20:38 The men of Israel had arranged with those waiting in ambush that they would make a big column of smoke rise from the city as a signal.
Jdg 20:39 Then the men of Israel would turn around in the battle. The men of Benjamin had already killed about 30 men of Israel. They even said, "Israel is completely defeated, just like in the first battle."
Jdg 20:40 But when the column of smoke started to rise from the city, the men of Benjamin turned around and saw the whole city going up in smoke.
Jdg 20:41 Then the men of Israel turned around, and the men of Benjamin panicked. They realized that their evil had overtaken them.
Jdg 20:42 They turned in front of Israel toward the road to the desert. But the battle caught up with the men of Benjamin. Israel slaughtered whoever came out of the cities on the road to the desert.
Jdg 20:43 They closed in on the men of Benjamin and pursued them without stopping. They overtook them east of Gibeah.
decisions made by drawing lots
Neh 10:34 We priests, Levites, and laypeople have drawn lots to decide the order in which the heads of our families should bring wood to our God's temple to burn on the altar of the LORD our God at appointed times every year according to the directions in the Teachings.
Neh 10:35 We have drawn lots to decide who should bring the first produce harvested and the first fruit from every tree each year to the LORD'S temple.
Neh 10:36 Following the directions in the Teachings, we have drawn lots to decide who should bring the firstborn of our sons, our cattle, and our flocks to the priests serving in our God's temple.
Neh 10:37 Also, we have drawn lots to decide who should bring the best of our coarse flour, contributions, fruit from every tree, new wine, and olive oil to the priests, to the storerooms. We will bring for the Levites one-tenth of the produce from our fields, because the Levites are the ones who collect one-tenth of the produce from all our farm communities.
replacement of position in office by drawing lots
Act 1:20 "For it is written in the Book of Psalms, "'May his camp become desolate, and let there be no one to dwell in it'; and "'Let another take his office.'
Act 1:21 So one of the men who have accompanied us during all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us,
Act 1:22 beginning from the baptism of John until the day when he was taken up from us--one of these men must become with us a witness to his resurrection."
Act 1:23 And they put forward two, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was also called Justus, and Matthias.
Act 1:24 And they prayed and said, "You, Lord, who know the hearts of all, show which one of these two you have chosen
Act 1:25 to take the place in this ministry and apostleship from which Judas turned aside to go to his own place."
Act 1:26 And they cast lots for them, and the lot fell on Matthias, and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.
the LORD must be the judge, He will decide between you and me
1Sa 24:9 David asked Saul, "Why do you listen to rumors that I am trying to harm you?
1Sa 24:10 Today you saw how the LORD handed you over to me in the cave. Although I was told to kill you, I spared you, saying, 'I will not raise my hand against Your Majesty because you are the LORD'S anointed.'
1Sa 24:11 My master, look at this! The border of your robe is in my hand! Since I cut off the border of your robe and didn't kill you, you should know and be able to see I mean no harm or rebellion. I haven't sinned against you, but you are trying to ambush me in order to take my life.
1Sa 24:12 May the LORD decide between you and me. May the LORD take revenge on you for what you did to me. However, I will not lay a hand on you.
1Sa 24:13 It's like people used to say long ago, 'Wickedness comes from wicked people.' But I will not lay a hand on you.
1Sa 24:14 Against whom has the king of Israel come out? Whom are you pursuing? A dead dog? One flea?
1Sa 24:15 So the LORD must be the judge. He will decide between you and me. He will watch and take my side in this matter and set me free from you."
1Sa 24:16 When David finished saying this, Saul asked, "Is that you speaking, my servant David?" and Saul cried loudly.
1Sa 24:17 He told David, "You are more righteous than I. You treated me well while I treated you badly.
1Sa 24:18 Today you have proved how good you've been to me. When the LORD handed me over to you, you didn't kill me.
1Sa 24:19 When a person finds an enemy, does he send him away unharmed? The LORD will repay you completely for what you did for me today.
Fundamental Laws & Principles of Successful Leadership: Qualities, attributes, & the essential elements of a True Leader
Leaders in position are often chosen wrongfully.
Ecclesiastes 10:5 Here is an injustice I have seen in the world---an injustice caused by rulers.
Ecclesiastes 10:6 Stupid people are given positions of authority while the rich are ignored. [Good News Bible (GNB)]
Existing leaders who are successful in their present position will find the list below to be reflective of their nature, character, and personality.
From my own experience reading books, publications, discussions and other articles about Leadership, 99% of all authors revolve around in twists and turns explaining certain principles, basic ideas and fundamental laws on how to successfully lead an organization. I believe that by having a simple and direct approach would benefit both the leader and followers as well. Below are short and simple keywords and sentences about the characteristics of successful leadership and the behaviours, attitudes, traits, and key points often sought for in a true leader:
A defender of the rights of other people.
A good leader leads with justice and equality.
A good preparation is half the battle.
A leader demonstrates character values serving as an example to be followed.
A promise made is a promise done.
Ability to accept criticism and to improve and learn from it.
Ability to manage meetings and appointments.
Ability to relate to people from all walks of life.
Ability to resolve disputes.
Ability to screen employees and interview candidates.
Ability to setup organizational systems.
Ability to successfully fundraise.
Able to see the big picture.
Achieve success based on short term goals and persistence towards a long term objective.
Achievement of corporate aims and visions.
Adaptability to any culture.
Addressing problems, issues, concerns and discrepancies.
Adjustments and fine tuning.
Advices superiors on the best course of action.
All the actions of leaders and followers must reflect the organization's Philosophy and Mission Statement.
Always look out for something that would make the best for the team.
Analyze and weigh down advices from different kinds of people with different backgrounds.
Appreciate and give credit to every good performance.
Appropriate line of thought & action.
Asking for ideas, suggestions, and opinions on how improvements can be made.
Asks everyone if there's any question about the task to be done in order to make sure it's fully understood.
Attainment of company objectives.
Attracts & draws in a crowd, outsiders, and new people.
Awards, rewards, and merits invigorate the followers, the team, and the company itself.
Be clear, concise, and direct.
Being firm at the right time and place.
Builds relationships based on trust.
Builds strong, useful, and lasting relationships and partnerships.
Celebrate and share success, accomplisments, achievements, milestones, and record-breaking events.
Clarity in describing the job that should be done.
Conceptual thinking skills.
Consideration of humanity and of the human element.
Considers everyone in the team is important.
Consult for advices, second opinions, third-party point of views, outlooks, and perspectives.
Continual gathering and consideration of ideas.
Continuous education, improvement, and learning.
Coordinate multiple programs and plans.
Coping up well with change.
Create an environment free of discrimination.
Credit every success and achievement to everyone in the team.
Data collection on systems and processes.
Delegate authority to others.
Demonstrated and proven excellence in managing yourself.
Determine people's strengths and weaknesses.
Develop, implement, and execute an idea.
Don't make empty promises.
Duties and responsibilities must be clearly defined and understood.
Earn your respect and trust among your people.
Easy to be with.
Effective leadership is more on serving your people.
Effective organizing of available resources.
Effective use of management methods and processes.
Efficient management of people's technical expertise.
Efforts leading to the success of the organization.
Encourage your people especially in troubled times, when people losses hope.
Encourages people who rejects new ideas or unwilling to change.
Encouraging people to free up stress and enjoy themselves.
Envision the organization’s future.
Exceptional management skills.
Explain clearly every individual's role and participation in every task.
Fair and sound decision making.
Feedbacks are important points toward improvement and betterment.
Focus on the main and most important things first.
Get the job done.
Giving your people the credit for your successes.
Good leadership principles are practiced in the whole organisation.
Good networking skills.
Harmonious relationship between followers and superiors.
Helping each team member to give and bring out their best efforts.
Helping people achieve a common shared vision.
Human resources and business management.
Identify goals and objectives.
Ignore unfruitful annoyances and disruptions.
Implementation of procedures, methods, and processes.
Inspiring others to lighten up and be happy.
Interpersonal relationships strength.
Keeping records and notes.
Know the objectives pointing towards the company's vision.
Knows the limits of individual human capabilities.
Lead people to achieve the organization's vision.
Leaders make things happen.
Leaders must know their strengths and weaknesses and how to best deal with it.
Leadership is mostly about behaviour.
Leadership philosophy is the foundation built upon.
Leading by example.
Learn from other people's success, achievements as well as their mistakes.
Listen to both sides of the argument.
Main priority is to accomplish the task on time and on schedule.
Maintain group harmony.
Makes sure that everyone counts and every member of the team is coordinated.
Making balanced decisions.
Making sure the work is completed on specifications and requirements.
Making sure everyone conforms to policies and regulations.
Making sure everyone knows and feels they have key roles and are crucial part to the success of the group.
Master the skills and strive always for the best.
Monitor progress of employee performance.
Monitoring progress of plans.
Moral code of ethics flows from within the leader.
Moral support and encouragement.
Motivation towards the company.
Must be able to manage self, people, materials, and costs.
Must be able to show good performance even under great pressure, tension or stress.
Must be adaptable.
Must be in excellent physical condition and a champion of physical well-being.
Must have a good grasp of Math.
Must have realistic expectations of the occupation.
Must possess enduring patience and perseverance until the objective is achieved.
Never blame anybody in public.
Organizational structures management skills.
Organize others towards the completion of tasks.
Orientation of newly hired employees.
Oversee employee productivity.
Participate in activities geared towards improvement and success.
Passion for excellence.
Performance evaluation and management.
Persistent desire toward the goal.
Placement of the right skills in the right positions at the right time.
Plan carefully and strategically.
Planning even within a limited budget and means.
Possessing word of honor.
Praise, acknowledge, and commend the accomplishments of followers.
Problem solving abilities.
Profitable marketing experience.
Proper allocation of resources.
Properly train and help people to develop their skills and improve their abilities.
Proven convincing power.
Putting the right person for the right job.
Recommends the best strategy to a specific situation.
Represent and protect the name and reputation of the organization.
Resilience under hardships, difficulties and troubles.
Set goals and targets.
Set standards and procedures.
Show the direction where the team is going.
Showing the best way to achieve a target objective.
Social and community responsibility.
Stimulate the group to bring out the best of their efforts and performance.
Strong and effective communication skills and methods.
Strong foundation of leadership principles.
Strong relationship skills with people.
Sustainable credit management skills.
Take responsibility for the blame and failure of the team.
Takes care of the emotional welfare of employees.
Taking advices from people.
Talented in counseling.
Teach and pass on the knowledge, training, and lessons learned across the organisation.
Team work really works.
Tested capability in management and supervision.
The group must be motivated towards achievement and success.
The leader must know himself fully well.
Think of alternatives and better ways to solve a given problem.
Time Management for Effective Leadership.
Training of personnel.
Triumph over adverse conditions and situations.
Troubleshooting and repair.
True leaders know their own strengths and weaknesses.
Understanding and proper channeling of the technical abilities of your men.
Understanding the people, the job, the tools, conditions, and existing circumstances.
Using positive and right words appropriately.
Well management and control of time.
When a leader makes a mistake, he uses it as a way to improve and an opportunity to be better.
Works effectively with others.
Canada was involved in three major conflicts in the 20th century namely the First World War, the Second World War and the Cold War.
At the beginning of World War I, Canada was still a British colony but the sacrifices and outstanding achievements of the Canadians during the war paved the way towards independent nationhood. Unlike in WWI in which Canada was automatically at war when Britain declared war, it was in World War II that Canada, for the first time, declared war independently. By the end of WWII, Canada emerged to be the third largest navy and fourth largest air force in the world. In the Cold War years, Canada started to become active in the international stage through United Nations peacekeeping missions in order to prevent the start of a third world war.
The aim of this essay is to compose an argument on the short term and long term consequences of the three major conflicts in the 20th century namely WWI, WWII, and Cold War. I will accomplish this aim by having three major headings of the three major conflicts mentioned above and then discussing the consequences related to them. This will be done in the Discussion. My conclusion will follow afterwards.
World War I:
The short term consequences of the First World War on the Canadian military are the growth of the navy, excellence of Canadian aces, and the international recognition of the Canadian Corps for its combat effectiveness. At the beginning of the war, the navy had only two old cruisers, the Niobe and the Rainbow, that were purchased from Britain. The Niobe at Halifax and the Rainbow at Esquimalt began service as training ships. When war broke out, the total strength of the Royal Canadian Navy was only 350 regular personnel and 250 volunteer reserve. These small numbers of manpower also accompanied inadequate trainings. Additionally, the dockyards are outdated and poorly maintained. Canada has the longest coastline in the world, but ironically only had these few and limited resources. However, during the summer of 1915, the RCN patrolled the Gulf of St. Lawrence using seven ships. In the spring of 1917, about 1200 recruits and 47 officers had been sent to the United Kingdom. Because of the threat of U-boats in the Atlantic shipping which transported personnel, food, weapons, ammunitions, and war materials, the Admiralty of Britain advised Canada to increase its number of vessels. As a result, Canadian ships increased to 22 patrol vessels and the government also ordered the construction of 12 trawlers. Canada is now building naval vessels and the following months more orders of trawlers was placed by the Admiralty. Also Canadian sailors learned important maritime skills such as patrol, convoy escort, minesweeping, and anti-submarine operations.
In 1914, the Canadian Aviation Corps (CAC) was formed by Sam Hughes, the Minister of Militia, in an attempt to create an air force during WWI because European nations were using military airplanes in their operations. It had only one plane, the Burgess-Dunne and was never used. A year later, the CAC was disbanded. Britain, however, told Hughes that Canada can help in the aerial war effort by sending Canadian pilots. The use of aircraft is important in military reconnaissance, patrol, escort, and air combat. In 1917, the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) had shortage in suitable squadrons needed for the war. The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) filled up this shortage by providing naval squadrons in which Canadians made significant contributions in Allied operations. Commander Mulock from Winnipeg was one of the squadron commanders that are well respected of his successes. Canadian fighter pilots “Billy” Bishop, Collishaw, MacLaren, Barker, McKeever, and Claxton were among the most prominent in RFC. Among the Canadian aces with the highest kills were Billy Bishop (72), Ray Collishaw (62), and Billy Barker (50). The most publicized event in the air was the strafing of a German airfield on the Arras front by Bishop on June 2, 1917. His action won him a Victoria Cross, the tenth to be won by an airman and the first by a Canadian flyer.
The Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) was the Army created in 1914 and sent by the Canadian government to Europe to defend the British Empire and help the Allied forces in World War I. Canada's permanent army in July 1914 numbered only 3000. In the early stages of the war, thousands volunteered. Majority of them were British immigrants and native-born Canadians of British stock. A small percentage of the volunteers were Aboriginals and Asians which included East Indians, Japanese, and Chinese. The supply of volunteers exceeded the demand. One of the selection criteria of recruiting officers was based upon the race of the applicant. They had complete discretion of whom to accept.
An important consequence of the war was the composition of a contingent with multi-national and multi-cultural backgrounds. As non-white candidates were becoming more and more insistent to enlist, the authorities settled on a compromise, which is to create separate units and distinct regiments under the careful supervision of white officers. In October 1914, the First Contingent of the CEF of some 36,000 sailed for England. Their transport from North America to Europe was a huge milestone for the Royal Canadian Navy. At that time, the CEF convoy was the largest to ever cross the Atlantic. The First Contingent went to England for training then sent to France. The First Contingent later was named the 1st Canadian Division. Later, there were four divisions in France and they were collectively known as the Canadian Corps. A 5th Division was formed in England but was disbanded and used for reinforcements. Sir Arthur William Currie became the first Canadian to command the Canadian Corps. Starting out his career from the pre-war militia, he became the first Canadian to attain the rank of general. Innovation was a defining feature of the Corps' approach to operations and organization; innovators in these areas were rewarded with promotion and degree of autonomy. The Corps plans, rehearses, innovates, disseminates information effectively so that it is understood from the top all the way to the lowest ranks. Anything that did not work or have caused a lot of casualties will be avoided in the next operations. The Corps keeps learning from previous errors and constantly improving. Currie took command of the Corps in June 1917 and harnessed the Corps' characteristic features to achieve an even higher status. The most famous success of the Corps was in the Battle of Vimy Ridge where both the British and the French failed. Because of its battle experiences and superior resources and organization, and as evidence by its success throughout the 100 Days campaign, the Canadian Corps was by the late 1918 one of the best, if not the best Allied corps on the Western Front. By the end of the war, they earned an elite reputation. They were referred to as "storm troopers" and "shock troops". Accomplishments of the Corps were assessed, reassessed, analysed, and reanalysed by historians, scholars, and analysts and indeed they were credited for their military combat effectiveness.
The long term consequences of World War I are the equality of Canada with Britain, and the independent nationhood of Canada. In the beginning of the war, Canada, being a colony, was not consulted in matters of the war strategy nor informed of war developments. Prime Minister Borden requested that Canada should also be involved in the discussion of war strategies and have an active role in the decision-making process. In 1917, when the Imperial War Conference met simultaneously with the Imperial War Cabinet, the resolutions recognized Canada as an autonomous nation equal in status with Britain. Overall, some 600,000 Canadians fought in the Great War; 60,000 of them died. With a population of only eight million, Canada made a great contribution and also paid a high price. One out of ten Canadians who went to Europe did not make it back to Canada alive. In the League of Nations, Canada was rewarded a seat for her sacrifices. In the Treaty of Versailles that ended the First World War, Canada earned a separate signature marking its nationhood status.
World War II:
The short term consequences of World War II led to the growth of the army, created the Canadian Women’s Army Corps, and made Canada to have the third largest navy and fourth largest air force in the world. In 1939, the strength of the Permanent Active Militia, also known as Permanent Force is about 4000. In 1940, their title was renamed Canadian Army. A year later, under General McNaugton, the army grew to 125,000 men. As a result of American car manufacturers having branches operating in Canada in the 1920s, the automotive industry was employed to make war materials such as military trucks, tanks, armoured vehicles, and armoured personnel carriers. These advances in technology also required the army to change their doctrine and battle tactics. What worked out during WWI may not necessarily work in WWII. This modernization resulted to the creation of Canadian Armoured Corps in 1940 which required reorganization of infantry regiments with tanks. To assist Britain, Canada built up a much larger army and converted the entire economy to war production. By 1943, the Canadian Army had grown to three infantry divisions, two armoured divisions, and two tank brigades. The Allied Invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944, was one of the most important and successful operations in WWII. In this operation, the Canadian Army’s contributions were the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division and the 2nd Canadian Armoured Brigade. In the following month after the landing, the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division and the 4th Canadian Armoured Division was added. The most remarkable effort of the Canadian Division was that they penetrated further inland than any other Allied division on D-Day. During the entire war, 730,625 men and women joined the Canadian Army.
In WWI, the CEF consisted of women mostly serving as nurses. In WWII, women started to make significant contributions to the war effort. In 1941, the Canadian Women's Army Corps (CWAC) was created. During the war, about 50,000 women enlisted and carried out clerical, communications, and administrative duties. They remained subordinate to men of the same rank and were paid less than males. Close to 3,000 women in the CWAC were sent overseas to the United Kingdom, Italy and other parts of the Allied theatre in Europe.
In 1939, the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) had fewer than a dozen fighting ships and 3000 personnel. The navy had 6 British-built destroyers and 4 home-built coal-fired minesweepers. In the Battle of the Atlantic (1939 - 1945), the longest military campaign in WWII, the RCN played a vital role in transporting war supplies for the Allied cause. The RCN was tasked with the enormous responsibility of escorting the convoys from North America to Britain through the Atlantic Ocean that was filled with lurking German U-boats. At its height, in autumn 1943, there were 229 Canadians ships, 21,000 seamen and 11 Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) maritime patrol squadrons with supporting facilities that had been committed to the Atlantic struggle. By the end of 1944, Canadian shipyards had launched naval ships, such as destroyers, frigates, corvettes, and some 345 merchant vessels. In Operation Overlord, the RCN contributed 110 vessels crewed by 10,000 sailors in support of the landings. Aside from sea support, the RCN had other crucial duties such as anti-submarine operations, shipping escort, food, material and personnel transport, sweeping sea mines, and gunfire support against coastal enemy defences. The navy also made significant contributions to Allied operations in the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, the Arctic, and in European waters. Throughout the war, Canada had made over 25,000 successful escort voyages and delivered over 164,000,000 tons of cargo. By the end of the war, the RCN was responsible for destroying 52 enemy submarines while 59 Canadian merchant ships and 24 warships were sunk during the Battle of the Atlantic. By 1945, the RCN had grown fifty-fold, to over 400 warships including three aircraft carriers and two cruisers and nearly 100,000 personnel, making it the third largest Allied navy - indeed the third largest in the world.
At the outbreak of the war in 1939, the RCAF had only 50 military aircraft and only 1000 personnel. The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP) was one of Canada’s greatest contributions to the Allied victory. It was created by an agreement in December 1939 between Canada, Britain, Australia, and New Zealand for the purpose of training the aircrews of these Commonwealth countries. Air superiority was a key factor in the Allied offensive operations. In order to achieve this, there must be superior military aircrafts, pilots, and aircrews. Canada was selected to be the primary location for a number of reasons: large training space, good weather, good economy, great talents (as shown by the aces in WWI), and most importantly it was away from enemy forces. It was the training ground for pilots, navigators, bomb aimers, aviators, radio operators, air gunners, flight engineers, and aircrews. BCATP would deliver 20,000 Canadian, British, Australian, and New Zealand aircrew a year. To maintain the BCATP, the RCAF had to replace British resources with planes, engines, and equipment purchased in the neutral United States or from Canada’s primitive air industry. At the end of 1940, there were 521 aircrew that graduated - mostly to be turned around as instructors. By the end of May 1942, the BCATP had graduated 21,824 pilots, observers, navigators and every other category needed for bomber crews. By the end of 1943, schools were graduating 3,000 flyers a month. In its history, the BCATP generated 131,355 aircrew graduates, including about 50,000 pilots. At its peak, the BCATP had 231 training bases located across Canada, over 10,000 aircraft and over 100,000 military personnel. More than half of its graduates were Canadian. By the end of the war, the BCATP had trained over 130,000 aviators, nearly half the Commonwealth’s air crews. The biggest and costliest Canadian air commitment was Bomber Command. Britain’s Royal Air Force (RAF) Bomber Command was formed in 1936. Its purpose was the strategic bombing of Germany’s military and industrial facilities. By October 1942, five RCAF squadrons served in Bomber Command. At the outset of 1943, eleven Canadian bomber squadrons were assembled as 6 Group. The 6 Group which was one-sixth of the total strength of Bomber Command was from the RCAF. One third of the 48 RCAF squadrons that served in Britain were attached to the Bomber Command.
Canadian pilots fought in the Battle of Britain in 1940. They successfully defended Britain from Germany’s Luftwaffe air attack. In May 1942, thanks to British pressure, the RCAF began to acquire the long-range Liberator bombers. Only in August 1943 did the first Lancasters appear. In the Normandy Landings of 1944 (Operation Neptune), the RCAF had helped prepare the invasion by bombing targets inland and providing aerial support. There were 15 RCAF fighter and fighter-bomber squadrons during this campaign. During WWII, the RCAF conducted international operations in Great Britain, Northwest Europe, North Atlantic, Newfoundland, Iceland, USA, Egypt, Italy, Sicily, Malta, Ceylon, India, and Burma. About 14,000 aircraft, including Lancaster and Mosquito bombers, were built in Canada. Between 1939 and 1945, the RCAF enlisted 232,000 men and 17,000 women and operated 86 squadrons, including 47 overseas. By the end of the war, the RCAF had 48 squadrons overseas and 40 more in Canada. The war indeed made Canada to have the fourth largest air force in the world.
The emergence of Canada as a “middle power” and international actor with her own foreign policy were the long term consequences of World War II. The war made Canada to prosper economically. The war caused the whole country to focus on the production of war materials which ensured full employment. It has made the whole country to take advantage of technology and utilize it to achieve military strength and superiority. It has made the army, navy, and air force to reach unprecedented heights. The war has caused the large scale production of airplanes, ships, tanks, shells, guns, and other war materials. Canada stood third among the nations in the number of fighting ships, fourth in airpower, and high in the list of armies. The war also made Canada to be completely independent from British control and allowed it to be allied with the superpowers in war operations that were international in scope. With the founding of the United Nations (UN) in 1945 after World War II, Canada got more involved in the international community. The Prime Minister St. Laurent has said Canada as a "power of the middle rank". This reference to Canada as a middle power has been realized by its economic position, military might, and its active involvement in international organizations such as the UN and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949. By being a member of these organizations, Canada believed it could prevent the occurrence of a Third World War. The Second World War caused two superpowers to emerge. As these two superpowers expanded their influence in other countries which often caused conflicts, Canada would like to stay in the middle to prevent these superpowers to impose their will on developing nations. In the Korean War in the early 1950s, Canada intended to fight for UN’s cause of collective security. Also, in the 1956 Suez Crisis, Pearson’s peacekeeping efforts highlighted Canada’s position as middle power. By having peacekeeping as part of foreign policy, Canada believed it can preserve Canada’s interests as well as the interests of other developing nations by acting as mediator to prevent the dominance of superpowers. Conscious of its position as a rising middle power, Canada attempted to get recognition for states like itself. It wanted the Great Powers to recognize its middle-power status. Canada tried to avoid letting the Great Powers control everything.
The Cold War’s short term consequence was the rearmament of the Canadian military. Curiously, Canada’s Cold War rearmament, which quadrupled the size of the armed forces within a few years of the outbreak of war in Korea, provided the country with the ability to play a major role in peacekeeping in the years that followed. The Korean War posed a great possibility of a third world war. The Soviet influence of communism to China and North Korea created huge fear of a nuclear war. General MacArthur considered using nuclear weapons in the Korean War and asked permission from Pentagon to use them in his discretion. Had nuclear weapons been used by the US, retaliation of nuclear attack would be a sure consequence. As a result of this conflict, Canada’s defense objectives included the building of military strength in the event of total war and the defense of Canada and North America from direct attack. From 1950 to 1953, armed forces strength rose from 47,000 to 104,000. By 1953, the defense budget had reached $1,907 million, ten times the 1947 level.
The Cold War’s long term consequence was the defense of Canada and North America. The Distant Early Warning (DEW) system that began in 1954 was an agreement between Canada and US to address the threat of Soviet bomber attack on the North Arctic region. It was a system of radar stations to provide and early warning of Soviet invasion. The development of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) with ranges greater than 3,500 miles and containing numerous nuclear warheads led to the signing in 1957 of both Canada and US of the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) for the joint cooperation in the detection, warning, and defense against nuclear missile threats from the USSR. The two countries jointly developed a series of plans for the land, sea, and air defence of the continent.
The First World War gave Canada a taste of autonomy and independence from British control. It also highlighted Canada’s combat effectiveness in the battlefield. The Second World War led to the emergence of Canada as a middle power. WWII gave Canada complete independence from Britain. It also allowed Canada to expand its military strength and participate in international operations. The Cold War provided Canada a new role as a peacekeeper in its intent to prevent a third world war. It also prompted Canada’s rearmament and defense. Those three wars transformed Canada from a British colony into a major international power capable of mediating between superpowers.
From the movie Crimson Tide (1995, starring Gene Hackman, Denzel Washington), the closing of the hatch which resulted to the death of three men in the engineering compartment is morally justified using different theories. Also, how moral intensity can influence decision-making is discussed.
The aim of this essay is to morally justify the closing of the hatch using Kohlberg’s Moral Reasoning, Utilitarianism, Kant’s categorical imperative, and Doctrine of double effect. Another aim of this essay is to explain how Jones’ model of moral intensity can influence decision-making given the fact that the decision-maker knows the three men very well. These aims are accomplished through the Discussion.
1. Kohlberg’s Moral Reasoning
As the acting CO of the submarine, I will order the hatch to be closed. My decision is based on Kohlberg’s mature stage of moral reasoning. According to Kohlberg, “But as we mature and move through different stages of moral development, we look beyond our individual wants and focus more on the ideals of justice and universally applied abstract principles of morality.” By closing the hatch, the ideals of justice is applied. Hence, it is morally just to save the lives of the many (submarine’s crew) and lose the lives of the few (three men inside the engineering compartment) since there is no other way to save the lives of the many without sacrificing the lives of the few.
The decision to close the hatch is morality justified by Utilitarianism through the outcome of the act. The bad outcome of the act is the death of the three men. The good outcome of the act is that the lives of the other personnel of the submarine are saved. Because of the greater number of lives that were saved, the closing of the hatch yielded the greatest good, and is therefore morally justified.
2b. Kant’s categorical imperative
According to Kant’s categorical imperative, “Act only according to that maxim by which at the same time will that it would become a universal law”…If it can be universalized, then we accept the maxim, and the action is moral. By applying Kant’s categorical imperative, my maxim of action is “To prevent the death of a greater number of people in the submarine, I will give an order to close the hatch even if three people will die.” If I universalize this, the maxim would be, “To prevent the death of a greater number of people in the submarine, anyone will give an order to close the hatch even if three people will die.” My action is moral and it is morally justified because it passed the test of universalizability --- it applies to any person given the same situation, to give an order to close the hatch to save the greater number of lives in the submarine.
2c. Doctrine of double effect
This doctrine consists in four conditions that must be satisfied before an act is morally permissible: 1. The nature-of-the-act condition; 2. The means-end condition; 3. The right-intention condition; and 4. The proportionality condition.
With respect to the nature-of-the-act condition, the decision to close the hatch is morally justified because the act of closing the hatch is morally good. With respect to the means-end condition, it is morally justified because the death of the three men is not the means of saving the lives of the submarine’s crew. The means of saving the lives of the submarine’s crew is the closing of the hatch. With respect to the right-intention condition, it is morally justified because the death of the three men, although foreseen, is not the intended effect of closing the hatch. The intended effect is to prevent the submarine from progressive flooding which in turn will save the lives of the submarine’s crew. Finally, with respect to the proportionality condition, it is morally justified because saving many lives of the submarine’s crew is at least as good as saving the lives of the three men.
3. Jones’ model of moral intensity
According to Jones (T. M. 1991), moral intensity is a multidimensional construct consisting
of six issue contingencies which are known as the components of magnitude of consequences, social consensus, probability of effect, temporal immediacy, proximity, and concentration of effect…He theorized that if any component increases, it is
generally expected that the overall level of moral intensity will also increase, and vice versa, assuming all remaining components are constant.
a. Magnitude of consequences
Because I know the three men very well, I know the extent of the harmful effects of their death more than anyone else in the submarine. I also know the effects towards the families of the three men, how painful it would be. Although it is a tough decision because I know the three men very well, still I would decide to close the hatch for the sake of saving many lives, which in time if I would know some of them as deep as I knew the three men, that they are equally important as well.
b. Social consensus
In my perspective, the moral intensity of their foreseen death is greater than anyone else because I know the three men very well. On the other hand, the social acceptability of my decision, that others will also agree that the rightful decision is to close the hatch, will in a way lessen the moral intensity.
c. Probability of effect
Although the moral intensity is greater due to the fact that I know very well these three men and their imminent death and the resulting harm, still I will order to close the hatch given the high probability of effect so that I will protect from harm a greater number of people, thereby also protecting more families from harm.
d. Temporal immediacy
The moral intensity is great because of the short time between the closing of the hatch and its consequences resulting in the death of the three men that I know very well. I will still order the closing of the hatch because time is also critical that if the hatch is closed too late, it will flood the whole submarine and will kill everyone inside.
I know very well and I am very close to the families of the three men, so that the moral intensity is very great but I will not let my emotions interfere with my decision to close the hatch in order to save more people and more families in turn.
f. Concentration of effect
As a result of my decision to close the hatch, the number of affected people (even if I know them very well) is less than the number of the submarine’s crew that will be much more greatly affected if the hatch is not to be closed.
An act can be considered moral or immoral depending on the theory applied. As more theories agree that the act is moral, the more the act tends to be morally justified indeed. Although moral intensity can influence decision-making, it should not be considered to a certain degree so as to compromise the right decision and the right thing to do.